GopherCon has happened annually in the US since 2014. Go is clearly gaining momentum, so this year we’ve got two similar conferences in Europe inspired by the original GopherCon: GopherCon Iceland in June and GopherCon Russia in March. Francesc, our VP of Developer Relations, is conducting a workshop in Iceland, while Vadim, the lead of ML team, spoke in Russia. Below is the edited version of Vadim’s talk transcript. There are also slides available.

measuring code sentiment in a git repository

Hi, my name is Vadim and I am working at source{d} and solving Machine Learning on Source Code (MLonCode) problems. I have recently stumbled upon this well-known question on StackOverflow again:

StackOverflow question about the best comments.

I keep laughing every time I read the answers, it’s a real pity this question is closed. So I thought that I could use the open source projects we’ve developed at source{d} to mine such comments in open source repositories. Most of the listed examples are sarcastic and could be qualified as dark humor. I decided to employ sentiment analysis, a relatively well-studied part of NLP for which large datasets exist and are free to download. This is what we are going to do:

  • Go over all the commits in a Git repository.
  • For each changed file, find new comments.
  • Classify each comment as positive, neutral, or negative.
  • Plot sentiment throughout the project’s lifetime.
  • Look at the funny discoveries.

We are going to use the following technologies:

I will describe each one in detail now.


go-git logo by Ricardo Baeta.

We started it back in 2015 as an “internal open source” project to fulfill our tasks of source code retrieval and analysis. This is an example of the typical software project workflow at source{d} today: we go open source from day one and see what happens next. This time go-git became a huge success with more than 2400 stars and several companies already using it in production. Although it lacks some of the features of “big brothers”, it is performant and highly extensible. Finally, the maintainers are experienced code maniacs and go-git is a good example of a clean API and extensible architecture.


Hercules appeared in December 2016 as an attempt to speed up Erik Bernhardsson’s Git-of-Theseus by reimplementing it in Go and go-git. Indeed, it is an order of magnitude faster now.

Line burndown of the Linux kernel - each band is one year and the thickness shows the ratio of lines which are not overwritten yet.

Then I added code ownership…

Line ownership in Ember.js. Notice how one of devs appeared and conquered half of the project.

…line overwrite matrix which shows how much code written by each developer is changed by others…

“Code wars” in Wireshark: XY cell’s intensity is proportional to the number of times developer X’s lines were overwritten with developer Y’s.

…and even structural coupling - how tightly logically related the functions or classes are.

Structural clusters in Jinja2. Each dot is a function and each pair is closer proportionally to the number of times those two functions appeared in the same commit.

Under the cover, Hercules contains the DAG resolution engine which frees users from manually designing the analysis pipeline. It also leverages pkg/plugin to allow external extensions.


We continue with comment extraction. The most straightforward way to extract comments is to take a syntax highlighter with a bunch of regular expression rules. We will get into trouble once we want to distinguish docstrings from regular comments, so we really need to parse the code. At the same time, we wish to be language agnostic, so a universal parser is required. Systems like ANTLR4 define their own grammar description metalanguage and maintain the parsers written in it. They should work fast - everything runs in a single process, however, the efforts to maintain the parsers are dramatic. Imagine that you target hundreds of languages, there are going to be bugs, there are going to be new versions and there are going to be new languages.

That’s why we chose the alternative way with Babelfish. We take the existing parsers (each language should have at least one), wrap their environments into containers which we manage directly with libcontainer and attach to an RPC server. The problem here is that those “native” parse artifacts, Abstract Syntax Trees, are in different formats which we need to normalize so that we can work with them using the same code. We maintain the drivers - compact projects to transform the native AST to the generalized AST which we called the Universal Abstract Syntax Tree (UAST). Thus we do not avoid the burden of maintenance completely. You must agree that writing tree transformers is much easier than writing parsers from scratch. RPC allows us to scale horizontally within broad limits but performs worse on small tasks.

UAST nodes are classified to the fixed set of roles, such as identifiers, literals, classes, functions and so on. Particularly, there is the Comment role which we are going to filter. Have a look at this code:

import (
client, _ := bblfsh.NewClient("")
resp, _ := client.NewParseRequest().Content("...").Do()
nodes, err := tools.Filter(resp.UAST, "//*[@roleComment]")
// nodes[0].Token

As you see, barely 3 lines of code, error handling excluded, allow you to extract all the comments from a source code string. The cool thing is UAST pretending to be XML and running XPath queries on it.


I need to say a few words about Tensorflow before explaining the comments classification model.

Tensorflow graph scheme.

The core of Tensorflow is the computational graph. It contains two types of nodes: tensors and operations. “Tensor” sounds a bit scientific; it is actually just a array with numbers. So buffers are specified as the input, they can represent the state of the graph which can mutate and there are output ones which we read in the end. Operations transform tensors according to the control flow rules.

Tensor flow. Taken from the official web site.

The rest is the layers of abstraction on top of the graph to simplify the typical ML solutions: neural networks, graph routines, visualization, etc. The key point is: Tensorflow abstracts the graph execution from the actual hardware where it executes. Tensors may be big and operations on them benefit from various accelerators such as GPUs, and Tensorflow allows to pin each operation to the supported execution device.

Each ML model goes through the training phase, either supervised or not. The graph state tensors change while the model is trained. Here is the intended way to train and use a typical neural network:

  1. Debug the model locally: make sure it converges and there are no implementation faults. We debug on e-GPUs at source{d}.
  2. Train the model on as much data as you have on a GPU cluster.
  3. Optionally apply a hyperparameter optimization algorithm to reach the best metrics in (2).
  4. Export the trained graph in “GraphDef” format (Protocol Buffers).
  5. Distribute it in an embedded or a pluggable fashion - that is, inside the application binary or separately.
  6. Apply it (“infer”) with any programming language.

In our case, I used the Python API to Tensorflow on a dedicated machine with 4 GPUs running two experiments in parallel for training and the Go API and plain CPU for inference. It is impossible to train Tensorflow models using the current Go bindings, but even if it was possible, I would still not do that. From my experience, scripting languages are superior for doing research where you rewrite code every now and then and need the full expressiveness and flexibility to achieve the result as soon as possible. At the same time Go fits the inference scenario well: we put everything into the single executable without dependencies and it just works. Everybody who deployed models in Python should understand the pain.

Have you heard about neugram, a scripting language on top of Go runtime? It was created by David Crawshaw, the author of pkg/plugin. Neugram is still in its early ages and has youth related issues, but I really like it. Who knows, maybe one day we will train Tensorflow models using neugram - I anticipate this.

The following Go code runs a Tensorflow graph:

modelBytes, _ := assets.Asset("model.pb")
graph := tf.NewGraph()
graph.Import(modelBytes, "")
input := graph.Operation("input").Output(0)
output := graph.Operation("output").Output(0)
sess, _ := tf.NewSession(graph, &tf.SessionOptions{})
feed, _ := tf.NewTensor([][]float32{})
result, _ := sess.Run(
    map[tf.Output]*tf.Tensor{input: input1},
    []tf.Output{output}, nil)

We embed the model using go-bindata, import the graph and discover input and output tensors. The new session is launched and we execute the resolved dependency tree to reach the output given the input. Sessions are required to allocate the hardware resources and manage the environment. Technically, they are bridges to the underlying Tensorflow runtime written in C++ as a standalone library, in case with Go this bridge is implemented with CGo.


vmarkovtsev/BiDiSentiment logo.

What’s left is to reveal the comment sentiment classification model. I named it “BiDiSentiment” and this is its logo. BiDiSentiment is a general-purpose sentiment model, it is not specifically designed for comments.

BiDiSentiment architecture.

The model is by far not the state-of-the-art but it works reasonably well. It consists of two stacked recurrent branches, each branch has two LSTM layers. Both read text byte by byte, the first from left to right and the second in the opposite direction. Once all the text is read, their outputs are concatenated and the dense layer put on top. The result is two numbers: the estimated probabilities of the negative and the positive sentiment. Obviously, their sum is 1.

Since the recurrent branches are independent, we can pin them to different GPUs which speeds up the training by 50%.

BiDiSentiment training device allocation.

The biggest labelled dataset that I found was 1.5 million tweets so I trained on it. As a bonus, the text sizes are bound to 140 (now 280) characters which perfectly suits the maximum recurrent memory depth. Here is the plot of the accuracy (number of correctly predicted sentiments divided by the overall size) through time.

BiDiSentiment accuracy on validation.

We split the data into two parts:

  1. The part on which we train the model, 80% of the dataset.
  2. The part on which we evaluate the model’s accuracy aka validation set. It contains the remaining 20%.

We evaluate on (2) instead of (1) to avoid overfitting - that is, when the model adapts to the training examples too much it loses generalization ability. The validation accuracy is plotted here. We see that our model overfits after 5 epochs. An epoch is completed after the model has seen the whole training dataset once. This is a typical situation in recurrent neural networks. I should have used overfit reduction techniques, e.g. dropout, but I did not have time. So we pick the graph state on epoch 5 and export it.

Let’s see how BiDiSentiment performs on some answers to that StackOverflow questions.

go get -v

# source:

echo "When I wrote this, only God and I understood \
what I was doing. Now, God only knows" | $GOPATH/bin/sentiment

Output (negative probability): 0.8803515 - the sentiment is clearly negative.

# source:

echo "sometimes I believe compiler ignores \
all my comments" | $GOPATH/bin/sentiment

Output: 0.88705057. Again negative.

# source:

echo "drunk, fix later" | $GOPATH/bin/sentiment

Output: 0.08034721. Positive.

Comment sentiment analysis

Let’s sum everything up and describe how we run source code comment sentiment analysis:

  1. Install and run bblfshd.
  2. Install hercules.
  3. Install libtensorflow.

Then we analyze any Git repository like this:

hercules --sentiment

We emulate the neutral sentiment class as the middle between positiveness and negativeness and exclude them from further analysis. The results are shown on the table.

Project Positive Negative Effective
pygame/pygame 93.4 98.2 -4.8
pallets/flask 23.6 31.9 -8.3
django/django 462.1 536.1 -74.0
golang/go 402.1 507.3 -105.2
kubernetes/kubernetes 186.1 91.6 94.5
keras-team/keras 104.8 71.1 33.7

The columns represent the sum of all the positive and negative sentiments together with the final sentiment value. Some of the projects appeared to be negative and some positive. We’ll see why later. Let’s look at the promised sentiment plot through time now.

golang/go sentiment through time.

Can we conclude anything useful from this? Unfortunately, no, there are no clear trends or periods. There are too many different comments. Maybe we will have more luck with repositories with a single main contributor. For now, it is more fun to inspect the most negative and positive examples of comments on Go source code. Negative:

// It is low-level, old, and unused by Go's current HTTP stack

// not clear why this shouldn't work

// overflow causes something awful

// quiet expected TLS handshake error remote error: bad certificate

Source: 1, 2, 3, 4.


// Special case, useful in debugging

// Implementation: Parallel summing of adjacent bits. See Hackers Delight, Chap. 5: Counting Bits.

// TODO(austin): This could be a really awesome string method

// TODO(bradfitz): this might be 0, once escape analysis is better

Source: 1, 2, 3, 4.

The last one is actually written by Brad who gave the Gophercon talk right before me hehe. In this case the model must have caught word “better”.

Finally, here are the positive comments in Keras, the deep learning framework I used to train BiDiSentiment model:

# With TensorFlow, we can infer the output shape directly

# Make sure there is exactly one 1 in a row

# get sorted list of layer depths

# Theano has a built-in optimization for logsumexp so we can just write the expression directly

I have looked at other classification results and can conclude the following. First, the model was trained on data of one nature (tweets) and applied to data of a different nature (comments). Thus it often exaggerates comment sentiment. Second, it behaves differently on two project types. The first type is projects which contain many details, many conditions, many checks and handle many edge cases. For example, language compilers (Go) or web servers (Django). BiDiSentiment classifies them as negative: the text tells how not to fail. The second type is projects which explain what is happening, which environment features they use to do better or explain much domain terminology. For example, Kubernetes has tons of devops comments and Keras describes deep learning recipes. BiDiSentiment treats them as positive: they teach or explain why they are cool. I must say that deep learning seems to be the modern alchemy (discussion) so Keras has a big positive sentiment, hehe.


  • It is easy to analyze Git repositories with Go.
  • Go is handy for “inference-in-a-box” with Tensorflow.
  • We need a dedicated dataset for comment sentiment. At the same time, manually labelling 1 million comments is at least challenging. Can we use reactions to GitHub issue comments?
  • Overall comment sentiment returned by our naïve Twitter model depends on the project type.

Here is the list of papers from Mining Software Repositories conference which go deeper into the topic:

That’s all. Please use #MLonCode hashtag on Twitter if you tweet about this. Thank you.

This post was written by Vadim Markovtsev. Follow him on Twitter: @vadimlearning.